Saturday, July 4, 2015

The First Assistance Exercises (with Jim Halliday Layout) - W. A. Pullum


W. A. Pullum



Jim Halliday






THE FIRST ASSISTANCE EXERCISES
- 1955 -

 -- W. A. Pullum tells how he originated weightlifting "assistance" exercises, still used today with great success by National and World champions.

Also including Jim Halliday's explanations and recommendations for their use, from his book "Olympic Weightlifting with Bodybuilding for All."






Bodybuilding to me when I was a young man representing a pursuit where the development of great strength counted for more than the development of muscle not possessing that strength, most of the things I did therefore in the way of training were naturally designed to make myself as powerful as possible.

A goodly degree of muscular development came in the process, of course, but it was not of very quick manufacture. It never is when the cultivation of power is when the main theme of training efforts. But what does come into being that way lasts for a very long time, maintaining itself for years and years long after regular training has ceased. That has not only been my own personal experience; I have noticed this fact with several other people as well.

Like everybody else, I found I was better at some lifts than others, but did not commit the mistake of concentrating on these, strong though at first the urge was to do so. Instead, I gave most attention to the lifts at which I didn't shine, appreciating that this was merely common-sense policy. That is, if I were to become the all-round strong man so much desired.

There were 42 recognized lifts in my day. 

BAWLA RULES for the 42 OFFICIAL LIFTS:
(as of 1933)

#1 and  #2 The Right or the Left Hand Military Press:
The dumb-bell shall be taken to the shoulder and, after a pause of two seconds, pressed to arms’ length overhead. At the commencement of the press the bar shall not be held higher than the top of the sternum where the collar-bones meet. During the press from the shoulder the trunk must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the legs straight, the heels together, the head held erect with the eyes looking directly in front, the slightest deviation from the erect position being counted cause for disqualification. In taking the bell to the shoulder either one or two hands may be used. In the performance of this lift the use of a barbell or ringweight is not permitted.

#3 and #4 The Right or the Left Hand Snatch:
The barbell shall be taken from the ground to arm’s length overhead in one clean movement. In ‘fixing’ the bell the trunk may be bent to the side, and the legs to any extent, but to lock the arm by ‘pushing’ the bell shall be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight, and the heels together.

#5 and #6 The Right or the Left Hand Swing:
The dumb-bell, which at the commencement of the lift must lie at right angles to the lifter’s front, shall, kept in that position throughout, be taken to arm’s length overhead. The lift may be performed in one movement, or a series of movements, but in the latter instance there shall be no pause between any of these movements nor shall any part of the bell be brought into contact with the ground after it has once been lifted therefrom. In ‘fixing’ the bell the trunk and legs may be bent to any extent, and the bell may be brought into contact with the forearm, but to lock the arm by ‘pushing’ shall be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift, the trunk shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight and the heels together.

#7 and #8 The Right or the Left Hand Clean and Jerk:
The barbell shall be taken to the shoulder in one clean movement, and thence jerked to arm’s length overhead. In the ‘pull-in’ to the shoulder the trunk may be bent sideways, the elbow may rest upon the thigh prior to standing erect, but should the bar be brought into contact with the body below the nipples it shall be counted cause for disqualification. To rest the elbow on the body prior to jerking the bell overhead is also permitted. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight, and the heels together.

#9 and #10 The Right or the Left Hand Clean and Bent Press:
The barbell shall be taken to the shoulder in one clean movement and thence elevated to arm’s length overhead as described in #13 and #14. In the ‘pull-in’ to the shoulder the trunk may be bent sideways, the elbow may rest upon the thigh prior to standing erect, but should the bar be brought into contact with the body below the line of the nipples it shall be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift, the trunk shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight, and the heels together.

#11 and #12 The Right or the Left Hand Anyhow and Bent Press:
The barbell shall be taken to the shoulder ‘anyhow’ (providing one hand only be used), from whence it shall be elevated to arm’s length overhead as described in #13 and #14. In taking the bell to the shoulder it shall not be counted cause for disqualification if the lifter’s head, or neck, be brought into contact with the bar, but the use of a belt, or sling, to support the elbow of the lifting arm is not permitted. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight, and the heels together.

#13 and #14 The Right or the Left Hand Bent Press- Two Hands to Shoulder
The barbell shall be taken to the shoulder with two hands without restriction as to method and, having been transferred into one hand, shall, grasped in the center, be elevated to arm’s length overhead by means of lateral pressure. During the press from the shoulder it shall be counted cause for disqualification should any part of the bell be brought into contact with the hip. At the conclusion of the lift the truck shall be erect, the lifting arm and legs straight, and the heels together.

#15 and #16 The Right or the Left Hand Deadlift
The barbell, which at the commencement of the lift may lie either parallel, or at right angles to the lifter’s front, shall be lifted from the ground to at least the height of the lifter’s knees. Should the bar be brought into contact with the legs during the lift, it shall not be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift the legs shall be straight and braced at the knees, the feet remaining astride throughout.

#17 Abdominal Raise
Lying on the ground with the back of the neck resting on the center of the bar, the lifter, grasping the bar with both hands, shall raise himself into a sitting position. Throughout the lift the heels shall remain together, the legs straight, and the bar in contact with the body, and upon conclusion the trunk shall be at right angles to the legs. In the performance of this lift the use of a dumb-bell is not permitted, but the feet may be secured under some weighty object.

#18 Crucifix
The dumb-bells (or ring-weights), having been taken clean to arms’ length overhead, shall be lowered sideways (palms uppermost) until the arms are level with the shoulders. If ring-weights are used, they will not be allowed to rest upon the forearms, but must hand suspended from the rings. Whilst the bells are being lowered, the trunk may be inclined backwards to any extent, but the heels must remain together, and the arms and legs be kept straight throughout.

#19 Rectangular Fix
The barbell grasped with both hands (knuckles to the front) shall hang at arms’ length across the lifter’s front, from which position it shall be raised forward steadily until the forearms are at right angles to the upper arms. Throughout the lift the trunk must not be inclined backwards, or forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the legs straight, the upper arms remain stationary, and the heels together. The slightest deviation from this position shall be counted cause for disqualification.

#20 Lateral Raise- Standing
The dumb-bells (or ring-weights) shall hang at arms’ length by the lifter’s sides, from which position they shall be raised sideways (knuckles uppermost) until the arms are level with the shoulders. Whilst the bells are being raised, the trunk may be inclined backwards to any extent, but the heels must remain together, and the arms and legs be kept straight throughout.

#21 Lateral Raise- Lying
Lying on the ground with the arms extended level with the shoulders (palms uppermost), the dumb-bells shall be raised until they are immediately over the lifter’s face. Throughout the lift the heels shall remain together, the buttocks on the ground, and the arms and legs straight. In the performance of this lift the use of ring-weights is not permitted.

#22 Hold Out in Front- Raised From Below
The barbell grasped with both hands (knuckles to the front) shall hang at arms’ length across the lifter’s front, from which position it shall be raised forward steadily until the arms are level with the shoulders. Throughout the lift the trunk must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together. Seen from the side, the head, back, buttocks, and heels should be in one straight line, and the slightest deviation from this shall be counted cause for disqualification.

#23 Hold Out in Front- Lowered From Above
The barbell grasped with both hands, having been taken clean to arms’ length overhead, shall be lowered downwards steadily (knuckles uppermost) until the arms are level with the shoulders. Throughout the lift the trunk must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together. Seen from the side, the head, back, buttocks, and heels should be in one straight line, and the slightest deviation from this line shall be counted cause for disqualification.

#24 Pull Over at Arms’ Length
Lying on the ground with the arms extended fully behind the head, the barbell shall be raised until it is immediately over the lifter’s face. Throughout the lift the heels shall remain together, the buttocks on the ground, and the arms and legs be kept straight. In the performance of this lift the use of a dumb-bell is not permitted.

#25 Pull Over and Press on Back Without Bridge
Lying on the ground with the center of the bar immediately behind the head, the bell shall be brought over the lifter’s face until the upper arms rest on the ground. From this position the bell shall be pressed to arms’ length overhead. Once the bell clears the line of the sternum where the collar-bones meet, the discs shall not again come into contact with the floor. Throughout the lift the heels shall remain together, the buttocks and shoulders on the ground, and the legs be kept straight.

#26 Pull Over and Push on Back with Bridge
Lying on the ground with the center of the bar immediately behind the head, the bell shall be brought over the lifter’s face until the upper arms rest on the ground. Once the bell clears the line of the sternum where the collar-bones meet, the discs shall not again be brought into contact with the floor. Immediately the bell is in the same position as for the ‘Press,’ then the heels may be brought close to the buttocks, and the forearms inclined forward until the bar rests across the abdomen. From this position the bell may be impelled to arms’ length overhead by a quick ‘bridge’ formation, but at no period of the lift shall the shoulders leave the ground. At the conclusion of the lift, the arms and legs shall be straight, the buttocks on the ground, and the heels be brought together.

#27 Two Hands Swing
The dumb-bells may be taken to arms’ length overhead in one movement, or in a series of movements, but in the latter instance there shall be no pause between any of these movements, nor shall any part of the bells be brought into contact with the ground after they have once been lifted therefrom. At the commencement of the lift the lifter may stand either between or astride the bells, but immediately the bells leave the ground they must be maintained at right angles to the lifter’s front throughout the lift. In ‘fixing’ the bells the legs may be bent to any extent, and the bells may be brought into contact with the forearms, but to lock the arms by ‘pushing’ shall be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#28 Two Hands Clean and Military Press with Dumb-Bells
The dumb-bells shall be taken clean to the shoulders, and after a pause of two seconds pressed to arms’ length overhead. At the commencement of the lift the bells shall not be held higher than the top of the sternum where the collar-bones meet. During the press from the shoulders the trunk must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the legs straight, the heels together, the head held erect with the eyes looking directly in front, the slightest deviation from the erect position being counted cause for disqualification.

#29 Two Hands Clean and Push with Dumb-Bells
The dumb-bells shall be taken clean to the shoulders, after which the commencing position shall be assumed. This position may be taken with the feet astride, or with one foot advanced, and in either the trunk may be inclined forward. If the feet are placed astride, both the legs must, at this period of the lift, be kept quite straight. If one foot is advanced, the leg corresponding to that foot must be kept quite straight. After taking up the commencing position a pause of two seconds shall elapse; the bells shall then be pushed to arms’ length overhead. As soon as the push begins, the legs and the trunk may be bent to any extent, but lowering the body vertically is not permitted. At the conclusion of the lift, the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#30 Two Hands Clean and Jerk with Dumb-Bells
The dumb-bells shall be taken to the shoulders in one clean movement, and thence jerked to arms’ length overhead.. To rest the elbows on the body prior to jerking the bells overhead is permitted. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#31 Two Hands Continental Jerk with Dumb-Bells
The dumb-bells, which must be lifted simultaneously, may be taken to the shoulders in a series of movements, and may be rested upon, or against, any part of the legs or trunk in so doing. They shall thence be jerked to arms’ length overhead. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#32 Two Hands Anyhow with Dumb-Bells
The dumb-bells shall be lifted to arms’ length overhead ‘anyhow’. For example, one bell may be taken to the shoulder with two hands, thence to be jerked, or bent-pressed, overhead, after which the other bell shall be raised to a full stretch of arm overhead. This is the method usually employed. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#33 Two Hands Slow Curl
The barbell grasped with both hands (palms to the front) shall hang at arms’ length across the lifter’s front, from which position it shall be lifted to the shoulders by bending the forearms completely on the upper arms. Throughout the lift the truck must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the legs straight, and the heels together. The slightest deviation from this position shall be counted cause for disqualification.

#34 Two Hands Clean and Military Press with Barbell
The barbell shall be taken clean to the shoulders, and after a pause of two seconds, pressed to arms’ length overhead. At the commencement of the lift the bar shall not be held higher than the top of the sternum where the collar-bones meet. During the press from the shoulders the trunk must not be inclined backwards, forwards, or sideways, the shoulders must be kept quite level, the legs straight, the heels together, the head held erect with the eyes looking directly in front, the slightest deviation from the erect position being counted cause for disqualification.

#35 Two Hands Clean and Push with Barbell
The barbell shall be taken clean to the shoulders, after which the commencing position shall be assumed. This position may be taken with the feet astride, or with one foot advanced, and in either the trunk may be inclined forward. If the feet are placed astride, both legs must, at this point of the lift, be kept quite straight. If one foot is advanced, the leg corresponding to that foot must be kept quite straight. After taking up the commencing position a pause of two seconds shall elapse; the bell shall then be pushed to arms’ length overhead. As soon as the push begins, the legs and trunk may be bent to any extent, but lowering the body vertically is not permitted. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#36 Two Hands Snatch
The barbell shall be taken from the ground to parallel arms’ length overhead in one clean movement. In ‘fixing’ the bell the legs may be bent to any extent, but to lock the arms by ‘pushing’ shall be counted cause for disqualification. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#37 Two Hands Clean and Press From Behind Neck
The barbell, having been lifted clean to the shoulders, shall be raised overhead, then lowered behind the neck until the bar rests across the shoulders. The heels shall then be brought together. From this position the bell shall be pressed to arms’ length overhead. During the press from the shoulders the trunk and legs may be bent to any extent, but the heels shall not be separated. At the conclusion of the lift, the truck shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#38 Two Hands Clean and Jerk From Behind Neck
The barbell, having been lifted clean to the shoulders, raised overhead, then lowered behind the neck to rest across the shoulders, shall, from that position, be jerked to arms’ length overhead. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#39 Two Hands Clean and Jerk with Barbell
The barbell shall be taken to the shoulders in one clean movement and thence jerked to arms’ length overhead. In the ‘pull-in’ to the shoulders it shall be counted cause for disqualification should the bar be brought into contact with the body below the line of the nipples. To rest the elbows, or the bar, on the body prior to jerking the bell overhead is permitted. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#40 Two Hands Continental Jerk with Barbell
The barbell may be taken to the shoulders in a series of movements, and may be rested upon, or against, any part of the legs or trunk in so doing. A belt may also be worn to support the bell prior to turning it to the shoulders, from whence it shall be jerked to arms’ length overhead. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, the arms and legs straight, and the heels together.

#41 Two Hands Anyhow with Barbell and Ring-Weight
The barbell and ring-weight shall be lifted to arms’ length overhead ‘anyhow’. For example, the barbell may be taken to the shoulder with two hands, thence jerked, or bent-pressed, overhead, after which the ring-weight shall be raised to full stretch of arm overhead. Again, the barbell may be taken overhead with two hands, then transferred into one hand, after which the ring-weight shall be taken overhead to arm’s length. At the conclusion of the lift the trunk shall be erect, both arms straight and parallel with one another, the legs straight, and the heels together.

#42 Two Hands Dead Lift
The barbell shall be lifted from the ground until the lifter stands erect. Throughout the lift the heels must remain together, and upon conclusion the legs must be straight and the shoulders taken back. Should the bar be brought to rest against the legs during the lift it shall not be counted cause for disqualification.

To what extent this policy succeeded may be seen on one respect from this fact: I officially broke records on 40 of these lifts when a member of the BAWLA, many of these performances establishing world records. 40 years ago now when the last of these records was accomplished, a number of them still stand to this day. 

One of the chief reasons for my eventual success as an all-round performer after such an inauspicious beginning was the origination and determined practice of a special type of exercise which I termed "Assistance Exercises." I devised these exercises in the first place solely for my own benefit, their object being to make me stronger on certain lifts where performance had shown power was lacking. Later, I extended the range of these special exercises to cover every lift I practiced.

When I had proved the efficacy of these various movements to my full satisfaction, I then taught them to other people in my capacity a Principal and chief instructor of the Camberwell Club. This was years before I became a professional teacher of weight lifting and physical culture.
Ingenious Plan

The working plan behind the construction of these "assistance exercises" was to make the muscles involved operate under conditions where they had to do their job without any aid being obtained from the introduction of technical skill. This meant mostly performing in positions where execution at once became a matter of some difficulty when weights of appropriate poundage were used. Because of this, unlike other forms of exercising, a series of successive movements were not possible. With the right degree of weight, two or three repetitions before a halt had to be called were the most that anyone (practicing correctly) could expect to do.

All round lifting not being practiced these days as it was in my time, quite a large number of these special exercises of mine are naturally now not so commonly in use. As they specifically apply to Olympic lifting, however, those I devised in this particular field have for many years now enjoyed a worldwide vogue, their value being universally recognized. The same sort of recognition, however, has not always been accorded the man who invented them!


Imitation!

Some years after they first became more or less common property as a result of my training so many champions upon them, an attempt was made by certain writers to represent them as something new linked up with their own doctrines, and in effort to disguise their true origin, they were described as "Enabling Movements." This rather clumsy title was the only thing new about them, the exercises so described all being faithful copies of my originals.

Recently, they have been given still another name -- "Power Exercises" -- the "discovery" also being made that they play a big part in the training of the Russians, much of the phenomenal ability of the latter in the lifting sphere being ascribed to the practice of these special movements. The best tribute to their merit, however, is that they remain the same in every particular of performance as when I first introduced them. That is, as -- according to reports -- the Russians carry them out.

Harking back now to a time when this country first possessed a good chance of capturing an Olympic weightlifting title, it is far from common knowledge that the chief factor responsible for raising the late Ronald Walker to the heights he reached in the Iron Game was the intensive practice of a large number of these special "assistance exercises" of mine -- all the time under my personal direction! These exercises were first taught to him when he came to Camberwell to live with me, so as to train under my supervision on the spot. The management of Health and Strength, it is only fair to state, were responsible for effecting this arrangement, this being only one of the many things done by this journal to help Walker to become an outstanding figure.

Another famous personality who owed his strength to the practice of Pullum "assistance exercises" was the late George Walsh, who studied under me at Camberwell for five years continuously. Walsh was only a youth when he came to me for instruction, having previously suffered from tuberculosis. I still have the medical letter in my files which he brought with him. He was then a little over 16 years of age. This was in the 1920's. 

When George had been fully restored to health by myself and given a respectable development, he then -- at his own earnest wish -- went on to weightlifting. And that's where intensive practice of these "assistance exercises" came in, for he needed their help in every particular.

By the time he was 19, he was doing 250 lb Clean and Jerk and 190 lb in the Bent Press. Continuing to progress at a steady rate, before he was 21 he was able to challenge for the title of "Britain's Strongest Youth" without any fear of the same result attaching again when Allan defeated him in a contest for the same title earlier on.


A Brainy Type

Walsh was essentially the brainy type of lifter. He was strong for his weight (154 lb), his temperament being responsible for his powers principally being made manifest in the form of nervous energy. He excelled most on the fast lifts, the Bent Press being the sole exception in this respect.

Coming now to more modern figures who have been helped to reach to where they wished to go by the practice of Pullum "assistance exercises," the case of Jim Halliday can appropriately be cited. Halliday has always made these exercises the main plank in his training since he first came under me in 1938; and to his credit, has never needed any prompting to cause him to record that fact. 

Circumstances connected with his work and the way these automatically compelled him to order his way of training forced Jim to rely on these exercises almost alone for considerable spells. His record isthe best proof of the value he extracted from them. 

Halliday, however, has not remained content with just recognizing the utility of these movements as manufacturers of great strength. A very knowledgeable man also in the physical culture field, he has sen how these movements -- with a slight variation of training plan -- can be utilized as pure bodybuilding exercises. And in his book, "Olympic Weightlifting with Body Building for All," he has explained how then can most successfully be employed for the latter purpose.



 -- This section from "Olympic Weightlifting with Body Building for All"
- 1950 -

CHAPTER II
ASSISTANCE EXERCISES

Part One

Failure at a lift, where style is not at fault, due simply to lack of the requisite strength to accomplish the performance -- "Assistance Exercises" the most effective builders of that necessary additional strength -- The sticking-point in progress which every lifter encounters sooner or later -- "Assistance Exercises" the one certain means of remedying that condition -- Selected groups of this special type of exercise for effecting improvement on the three Olympic lifts -- The importance of never attempting to make performance of these particular exercises any easier than the instructions lay down.


Most lifters do not realize that when they fail with a certain poundage the reason is not that their style is at fault; it is simply because they are weak in a certain muscle or group of muscles.

It is not generally know (or it is an ignored fact) that the whole body  is used in pressing; it is not merely an arms' or deltoids' movement, as some people seem to presume. The fact that a man has good triceps or deltoids does not necessarily make him a good presser -- belief in which is another common fallacy. My triceps are so developed that there is only half an inch difference in the size of my arm straight and flexed; yet I am only a moderate presser in comparison with my other lifts. I am convinced, however, that if I had not reduced my bodyweight so often in the past, I should now (due to assiduous experimenting with W. A. Pullum's "Assistance Exercises") be pressing in the region of 225 lb -- a distinct improvement on the 190 lb I was doing two years ago. 

Reducing one's bodyweight affect the Press tremendously, and I calculate it takes me four months to rebuild my Press back to normal. Having reduced about 10 times in the last two years, I feel I have not had a fair chance to improve my press outstandingly. Therefore, because I have improved it, despite the handicap mentioned, I have no qualms in recommending the following special exercises to anyone having difficulty in progressing, especially those who appear to have reached a sticking-point in poundage.

Contrary to the general idea, I believe that pressing does take a lot out of a man, and so advise lifters to use these "Assistance Exercises" on alternate nights from ordinary training. Some advice on schedules containing assistance exercises will be found in an ensuing chapter.


"Assistance Exercises" for the Press

Exercise 1 - The Seated Press
This is an exercise to strengthen the chief muscles used in the Press, and is little different from the orthodox movement, except that -- being performed seated -- it does not allow for any back-bend, and consequently assists in strengthening the back to a great degree. A bench is the best thing to sit on, being the correct height; but no matter what you decide to use it is important that the thighs be at the requisite height when seated.

Performance
Take hold of the bar, first ensuring the bench or box is in a position immediately behind, so that no energy is wasted in getting seated with the bar. Pull in to the shoulders in the usual way and sit down naturally. This exercise can be made easier by sitting on the edge of the bench, but when made easier that way it loses some of its benefits.

Keeping the eyes fixed on a spot just over eye-level ahead, press in the usual fashion.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
4 sets of 4 reps with 40 lbs below actual maximum pressing capacity.

Author's Note:
It will be noticed in all exercises that, where poundages are concerned, only such approximations can be given. It is up to the performer himself to use initiative by experimenting to find the most suitable poundage. The advised reps, must be adhered to, however, and instructions of progression will be given in a later chapter.


Exercise 2 - The Half-Press
This is a fine movement for strengthening the muscles that aid the bar in passing the sticking-point.

Performance:
Take hold of the bar with the usual Press grip and SNATCH (not clean) it to arms' length. Use a split and recover immediately, bringing the feet in line and into the position usually adopted for pressing. Then, keeping the body upright, lower the weight slowly until if feels that if you allowed the bar to come any lower, it would at once sink to the shoulders. This usually occurs at eye-level, which is approximately the sticking-point in an ordinary Press. From here, without pausing, press the weight back to arms' length overhead.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
4 sets of 4 reps with 30 lbs less than top pressing capacity.


Exercise 3 - Two Hands Alternate Press with Dumbbells
The lifter will probably be familiar with the regulation dumbbells Press, and this exercise is very familiar for the most part except for the important detail of how the bells are held at the beginning.

Performance:
Take hold of the dumbbells to be used with the palms of the hands to the front -- i.e., as a bar is held for "pulling in one hand clean" to the shoulder -- then take both bells from the floor to the shoulders so that they "lie" at he chest as they would do if a "curl" had been performed.

From here, press them alternately in the following manner: Press bell in the right hand and, as it passes the top of the head, turn the wrist so that the weight is in the usual position for the "one-arm military." Lower, and at the same time commence pressing with the left, carrying out similar action. The bells should pass at the halfway stage.

Advised Reps:
3 sets of 12 reps (6 with each hand). As the lifter may not be schooled in dumbbells lifting, no poundage can be advised, but I suggest one-half the performer's present limit barbell press as an experimental poundage to be divided equally between the two bells.


Exercise 4 - Combination Movement
This is one of the few exercises which is not in itself an actual pressing movement, yet is distinctly helpful to the Press. It is a marvelous deltoid improver, and apart from being of service to the Olympic man as an aid to his press, should be in every body-builder's schedule.

Performance:
Lie flat on the back with barbell at arms' length behind the head. (The exercise consists of nine separate movements that count as one repetition.).

From the commencing position of grasping the bar behind the head, proceed as follows:

1) Pull the bar over -- keeping arms straight -- until it is immediately above the face. Pause.

2) Lower -- resisting strongly all the time -- on to the thighs.

3) Sit up.

4) Still keeping arms stiff, raise bell into the "hold out in front" position.

5) Raise to arms' length overhead. Pause.

6) Lower steadily back to the thighs.

7) Lay back into supine position.

8) Raise bar back to position over face.

9) Lower slowly to starting position. Rest.

Advised reps:
4 sets of 5 reps to commence, and trial poundage of 30 to 40 lbs.

All the movements in these four exercises should be performed at about the same speed as the lifter normally displays on a Press. No specially slow movements, but at the same time care must be taken not to employ any jerky movements. Endeavor to do them rhythmically and smoothly throughout.

If the lifter is in the habit of using a thumbless grip, it is possible to do Exercises 1 and 2 with this grip. But although I use a "thumbless" in actual pressing, I believe it is advantageous to use an ordinary grip for all four movements.


"Assistance Exercises for the Snatch"

I have already stated that the best method of improving the Press is the Press in various forms. So it is with the second Olympic lift -- the Snatch. The various "Assistance Exercises" explained here have only one chief end in view; namely, the development of pulling power for the Snatch. The power of the pull and its direction are the main attributes of good snatching, no matter what style is used.

When a lifter has developed a particular style that is favorable to him, he should train on this style only. All experimenting should be done early in his career. It should be obvious that, in performing any movement, a lifter uses certain muscles more than others, and if he wishes to be proficient at any one special thing, he must develop these muscles albeit at the expense of others.

By this I mean that if a man has been snatching a certain way for, say, two years, he has put two years' work into developing his muscles to do that work. If he suddenly decides to alter his style -- even slightly, such as a wider grip, for instance -- a certain time must elapse before the muscles now being used are as good in quality as were those formerly employed. Any slight variation of movement brings different groups of muscles into action; or at least, exercises responsible muscles a different way. So it is obvious good sense to develop one good style and perform it constantly, so as to bring the muscles involved in this movement to their very best performance standard.

Of course, if the lifter suddenly realizes that his style can be improved -- or is advised to this effect by a really qualified instructor -- it is up to him to make the necessary changes. But he must be prepared to see a reduction in his performances until such time as the muscles now brought into action become as proficient as were those formerly employed.

The above is my reason for disliking "hang" snatching as performed by most lifters. It is usual when performing this movement to do one snatch from the floor in customary fashion, then lower the bar, halting it with the discs about four to six inches from the floor, immediately from that point doing another snatch.

Now, when a lifter lowers the weight into this "near-floor-hang" position, he usually allows it to pull him forward; consequently, on the second attempt, two things occur that are detrimental. The first is that, by allowing the weight to be further forward than is usual, the lifter invariably pulls the second time with a rounded back. The inevitable sequel is that the second pull cannot be in the same "groove" as his usual "all-the-way" pull. It is customary to do three or even four lifts from "hang" in this manner, it is obvious that a lifter so performing is putting in more practice out of his usual "groove" than in it. He is therefore not fully developing the muscles used in his "standard groove" style!

A better method of "hang" snatching is the one I have seen that wonderful snatcher, Julian Creus, perform -- also an original W.A. Pullum "Assistance Exercise. Instead of lowering the weight to the extent explained in the previous paragraph, he drops the weight on to his thighs and "re-sets" his back before pulling a second time.

Personally, I do all my repetition snatches in training from the floor, and invariably in single attempts. For the first couple of poundages (usual warming-up lifts), I use the "get-set" style, and do maybe three or four without releasing the bar, but lower it to the ground each time. Then I do all my following reps, singly, using my usual approach to and "dive" for the bar. As I finish each attempt, I walk away, turn, proceeding immediately to my next, until I have completed my group for that weight. Then I rest, as usual, before taking my next poundage.


Exercise 5 -- Snatch without Split
The "Assistance Exercise" I am describing first is one I use in my personal training, and have done for years. In fact, when I am on afternoon shift at work, I am forced to train at home and use this lift in place of the Snatch, as conditions make it impossible for me to employ a split. So competent has this made me in pulling power that I have succeeded with 195 lb on various occasions.

Performance:
Adopting the usual starting position for snatching -- according to what attitude you favor in your stance to the bar -- the first part of the movement that follows is exactly as in the ordinary snatch. But when the bar reaches the point where the performer customarily splits, the pull must be prolonged to carry the weight overhead without moving the feet at all. In fact, to do the exercise correctly, the pull must be so lengthened as to carry the bar to arms' length without a press-out! 

It will be impossible to avoid this press-out at first; but the lifter must endeavor to do this as little as possible, and try very hard to eradicate it altogether in time. This press-out makes the exercise easy and destroys a lot of its designed benefits.

Great attention must be paid to pulling the weight back. Actually, I do not believe anyone does pull a heavy weight back on the Snatch, but trying to do so automatically assists in preventing it going forward.

This particular movement is a wonderful exercise for improving pulling power, and another point is this. The lifter becomes so addicted to pulling weights high, he does this consistently when performing complete snatches with heavier weights. Of course, really heavy weights cannot be pulled head high; otherwise, they would not be heavy. But in snatching, this principle definitely governs: The longer the pull, the easier the lift.

Remember to lower the bar to the floor after each attempt. Use the usual Snatch grip, and make it as near a real Snatch as possible without foot movements.

Some men may find that, in attempting to pull back, they raise slightly on the toes; a natural consequence, due to changing direction from the start in the path of travel. This in no way lessens the benefits derived.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
4 sets of 4 reps, trial poundage of 50 lb. 


Exercise 6 -- Snatching from Two Chairs
This is another favorite exercise of mine, and is extremely useful in assisting a man to split low. As the title indicates, it is performed first of all be setting the bar so that the discs rest on two chairs. To bring bar to required height in most cases it will be found necessary that the chair supports should be built up so that, when the lifter grasps the bar, his arms, legs and back should be perfectly straight. In other words, he should be standing erect, bar grasped with arms completely locked at the elbows.

If the weight is fixed so that the bar is in a lower position, it makes the movement much easier. This is only permissible at first if the lifter finds difficulty in performing the exercise correctly. But he should work away from this lower position as soon as ever he possibly can to the higher one which is really the absolutely essential position of the exercise.

From the position described, the lifter must make a concentrated effort to "wrench-pull" the bar upward. The high position renders any assistance from the legs impossible, the upper limbs and body being compelled to do all the work. When the pull had reached its fullest extent, the exercise is completed as an orthodox Snatch. That is to say, with splitting.

Due to receiving no initial help from the legs, the pull is obviously much limited; it will therefore be found necessary to split fairly wide to facilitate fixing the bar overhead. But as the weight, when it is actually at arms' length, will feel fairly light, relatively, recovery should not be difficult. In placing of the chairs, it is advised that their backs be turned away from you; so that, when the erect position has been reached at the conclusion of the lift, a pace back can be taken and the bell lowered without risk of damage to the chairs.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
10 single attempts with approximately half your top snatching poundage.


Exercise 7 - Dead Hang Pull-Up
This is actually a variation of Exercise 5 proceeding to a combination of Exercises 5 and 6. Although less poundage is handled than in Exercise 5, effects are none the less strong, results produced being quite as positive because assistance from the legs is still kept out of the action.

Performance:
Take a barbell into the "hang" position, using the usual grip. This should find you braced well erect, bar held in front of the thighs.

Proceed from here -- without any preliminary dip of the body -- to wrench the bar to arms' length overhead exactly as in Exercise 5. Remember, no foot movements -- and pull back. But don't work the head and body forward as you pull back; otherwise you detrimentally interfere with the design of the exercise.

As it is a natural instinct to dip prior to the pull, great concentration must be exerted in endeavor not to do this. If found impossible at first to perform as instructed, place the bar on two chairs [or boxes] and per the routine of Exercise 6. If this has to be done, it is a good plan to have these built up to a point where standing perfectly erect to "dead-hang wrench" takes the plates about an inch up from the supports. Then, if you are unconsciously inclined to bend a little at the knees when performing, you will receive notice of this by the plates dropping back to the supports. Knowledge of this helps appreciably to correct this error.

This is, again, a good movement for the man forced to do some of his training at home; moreover (like 5), it is a fine exercise to warm up on for the Snatch in usual training.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
4 sets of 5 reps. Trial poundage of 50 or 60 lbs.


Exercise 8 - Rising Trestle Snatching (Progressive Starting Position Adjustment)
This is an excellent exercise for all, and especially the man with a limited poundage at his disposal. The apparatus required is easily constructed by the handyman, and will very soon repay the lifter by improved performance. It consists of two trestles with solid bases. Overall, these should be the height of the man's hands in the "hang" position, and the sloping pieces should be notched on the one side every two inches, deep enough so that the bar can rest in them loosely. This is a "static poundage" exercise, most helpful for the man who is stuck at a certain weight, because by this method it is possible to progress beyond that weight, albeit slowly.

Commencing with a poundage that can be handled 10 times, snatch it from the floor in the "get-set" position. When a suitable time has elapsed -- say, two weeks, training twice or three times each week, doing 10 single reps only each session -- place the bar in the lowest notch and again do 10 single reps each session. When suitable progress has been made -- which means when the 10 reps have become easier -- raise the bar another notch and similarly proceed. Eventually, if the lifter has been patient enough to make haste slowly, it will be possible for him to do the 10 reps from "dead-hang"; i.e., from the height of the highest position on the racks. When he has reached this stage of progression, the bar is made slightly heavier and returned to the floor as start for a similar rising routine.

This is not an exercise for a month, but should be given at least a six-months' trial in conjunction with the usual training. It is, of course, possible to carry on indefinitely, and I myself in 1938 worked on this movement twice weekly, doing my other training three times weekly, for twelve months. During this time my Snatch improved 20 lbs.

In all Snatch exercises, it is wise policy to carry out the movements as near to your own regular snatching style as possible. Make it a habit to perform this way, and then you find that instead of having to concentrate quite so much on doing that style, you can use most of your mental powers to influence pulling.

A good lifter only fails because the weight is too heavy for him. If you develop your style so that you can repose the fullest confidence in it, that's the only time you will fail.


"Assistance Exercises for the Clean and Jerk"

In a previous chapter I have given my reasons for disliking the Dead Lift as an aid to cleaning, but if you personally like dead lifting, here is a variation that is much more beneficial to the Olympic man than when the lift is performed in the orthodox style.


Exercise 9  - Stiff-Legged Dead Lift from Box
Performance:
Get a block of box, nine to 12 inches high, and do your Dead Lift with straight legs. Do your first pull ordinarily from the floor, then lower the bar as you stand on your raised base so that it almost touches your toes -- and pull from there. By doing this you are actually pulling the bar from what would be floor level; and by keeping the legs straight you give more work to the back.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
10 reps at any one session are ample. Trial poundage of about 40 lb less than your Clean.


Exercise 10 - Clean and Jerk Without Split
Performance:
Having adopted your usual cleaning position, viciously pull the bar as high as you possibly can, in addition, pulling back. As the pull finishes, turn the wrists and push up the elbows to fasten the weight at the shoulders.

It is possible that you may have to bend the knees at this stage, but as the whole idea of this exercise is to aid pulling power, it is best if you can perform the movement without dipping; in any case, never should you have to use more than a quarter-squat.

For the next part, use the dip as you normally do in jerking to get the weight away from the shoulders. As its poundage is relatively light for jerking, it should be possible to get it almost to arms' length with this initial heave. That, actually is the objective for this part of the lift: to get the bar to arms' length unassisted by foot movements. The lifter should be prepared, therefore, to push out strongly at the conclusion of the lift in case the jerk from the shoulders was insufficient to lock the elbows. On no account should the feet move -- neither should the legs bend again after the first dip.

This is a good exercise to practice the hook grip with, and to learn to change over to the ordinary grip as the weight comes in to the shoulders. This is done by sliding the thumbs out from under the fingers as the wrists turn over. It is quite a simple movement, and soon becomes habitual.

It is possible to do some exceptional poundages in this particular exercise lift, and I actually get to within 20 lb of my commencing match poundage on the Clean. It will be realized the good effect this has on a man's confidence! If he dies, say, 220 lb without split and a minimum dip of the body, 240 lb to commence with in a match comes easily. I am giving two separate advanced schedules for this exercise, as while one person may feel that it is his Clean which needs attention, with another it may be vice versa. 

For the man who needs assistance on the Clean, I suggest the following, the reps being singles without releasing the bar (but allowing it to return to the floor after each attempt):

With 100 lb below limit Clean - 4 Cleans and 1 Jerk
With 90 lb below limit Clean - 3 Cleans and 1 Jerk
With 80 lb below limit Clean - 3 Cleans and 1 Jerk
With 70 lb below limit Clean - 2 Cleans and 1 Jerk

For the man needing help with the Jerk:

With 90 lb below limit Jerk - 2 Cleans and 3 Jerks
With 80 lb below limit Jerk - 2 Cleans and 3 Jerks
With 70 lb below limit Jerk - 1 Clean and 3 Jerks
With 60 lb below limit Jerk - 1 Clean and 2 Jerks


Exercise 11 - Seated Clean
This is a wonderful exercise for improving the Clean, but it is easily ruined as an exercise of special design by being performed wrongly. This is the way it should be done:

Performance:
Sit on a chair, box or bench that allows you to have both feet solidly on the floor. Then bend forward -- or should I say, lower yourself still seated -- to grasp the bar and, without raising the buttocks from the bench, pull the weight in to the shoulders. Assuredly to perform this exercise correctly, the following points must be noted:

You must pull whilst seated.
You must not rise up during the pull or when turning the wrists.
You must sit well back on the bench and not on the edge.

If you have difficulty in balancing, you may hook your feet round the bench legs, but this should not be necessary. You really must pull to bring the weight up high enough to turn the wrists over.

To recover, stand erect, weight at the shoulders. Then lower the bar back to the floor and re-seat yourself, ready for recommencement.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
4 sets of 3 reps. Trial poundage with just over half maximum "cleaning" poundage.


Exercise 12 - Cleaning from Two Boxes
This exercise is exactly as Exercise 6 on the Snatch, except that it is performed with a Clean grip (i.e., hands not spread so wide apart as for snatching) and, of course, only pulled in to the shoulders.

Performance:
It must be remembered that the arms, legs and trunk are all kept straight. If the weight is fixed at the right height, this commencing attitude of the limbs and body will naturally result.

As in snatching from this position, no assistance whatsoever can be expected from the legs; it is therefore vital to use every possible available muscle left which acts in pulling. Again, too, a deep split [or squat] is essential (if a suitable weight is being used), but once at the shoulders, recovery is not difficult owing to the relatively light poundage involved.

To recover, step back once the weight is "in," lower to the "hang" and replace on the supports.

Advised commencing reps and poundage:
10 single reps. Trial poundage with two-thirds of maximum Clean and Jerk.


In execution of all the exercises in this chapter, it should never be the practice of the performer to try and make them easier by adopting any position that helps to do this; nor, for that matter should he just as mistakenly make them harder by doing them in a strained position. Even though some of them are unorthodox, therefore unusual, it is possible to do them comfortably and correctly. And in doing them this way, the lifter insures getting the best out of them, so getting the best out of himself.

Most probably the advised poundages will apply to very few readers. They are only given as a guide; and, as in lifting, one man will be able to perform some exercises better than others. It is up to the individual to use his own discretion in selecting the right poundages. Or, to make assurance doubly sure in this respect, place himself under the man who devises all these movements, the same as I did. I can guarantee that if he does this he will get genuine personal attention to his particular individual needs.

In order to aid the reader who may wish to use one or more of the schedules in which these exercises appear, I list them here for easy reference.

"Special Assistance Exercises"

1) The Seated Press
2) The Half Press
3) Alternate Press with Dumbbells
4) Combination Movement
5) Snatch without Split
6) Snatching from Two Supports
7) Dead-Hang Pull-Up
8) Trestle-Snatching
9) Stiff-Legged Dead Lift from Block
10) Clean and Jerk without Split
11) Seated Clean
12) Clean from Two Supports


"Explanation and Schedules"     

When, many years ago, W. A. Pullum first originated "Assistance Exercises" and named them so appropriately, he was actuated mainly, if not entirely, by the strength motive. That is to say, he devised these movements with the idea of making himself much stronger than he was on certain lifts and feats, some parts of which resembled these movements or were exactly the same. The way he reasoned was that, where these lifts and feats had disclosed weaknesses in his make-up, the obvious way to remedy these weaknesses was by intensely practicing movements of the character which had revealed them. Best proof of the logic of this reasoning is furnished by his terrific later achievements as a champion weight-lifter and music-hall "strong man."

The practice of "Assistance Exercises," however, need not necessarily be confined to a greater strength-producing effort; they can quite easily be adapted to form a body-building program -- just as can the Olympic lifts themselves. It is only a question of method, and the basic principle of that method is very simple both to explain and understand. Briefly, to become stronger, one lifts heavy weights progressively a few times ("heavy" and "few" being comparative terms according to the established capacity of the person concerned). Principally to become better developed, one exercises with weights of lighter poundage a greater number of times ("lighter" and "greater" again being comparative terms in the same sense as before).

Dependent for full success, of course, on common-sense methods of application, the "Assistance Exercises" taught earlier in this chapter can be advantageously employed for various aims. They can be practiced as per original motive of design, viz., as builders of greater strength for already "style-proficient" Olympic performance; they can be beneficially employed as a "monotony break" if and when routine training threatens to become a grind; they can be made to serve as a base of technical education when the rudiments of style have still to be learned; and they can constitute the nucleus of a purely body-building program. In short, they can (I have found from experience) be beneficially used by everyone, beginner and expert. I am able, therefore, in all sincerity, to recommend them both to the ambitions Olympic aspirant and his body-building colleague.

I now submit four specimen plans, each variously employing these exercises.

SCHEDULE 1 is mapped out primarily for the absolute beginner; to enable him to develop his muscles, suitably tone them up for progressive effort and, at the same time, obtain a grasp of style -- a requisite possession, in my opinion, if progressive effort is to be fully successful.

SCHEDULE 2 is for the body-builder-cum-Olympic man, who is interested equally in improving his physical appearance as well as his lifting totals.

SCHEDULE 3 is essentially for the man proceeding from body-building to a concentration on the Olympics.

SCHEDULE 4 can be of assistance to the man desiring a change from routine Olympic training; in fact, is specifically recommended for that purpose.

While it is not possible, in all honesty, to table poundages for any of these schedules (it is imagined that the reader will realize how ridiculous it would be to attempt to do so without personal knowledge of the performer), the set number of repetitions in each case should enable the weights to be individually fixed correctly.

To insure that full benefit is derived from the practice of these "plans," it is essential that the exercises are performed precisely in the order stated.


SCHEDULE 1

1st Exercise - Assistance Exercise 7 - Dead Hand Pull-Up

Commencing reps, first period: 4-4-4-4.

Progress as follows:
5*-4-4-4
5-5*-4-4
5-5-5*-4
5-5-5-5*
6*-5-5-5
6-6*-5-5
6-6-6*-5 
6-6-6-6*

Then revert to the original 4-4-4-4 and add 2.5 lbs.

2nd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 1 - Seated Press

Commencing reps and progression same as above.

3rd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 10 - Clean and Jerk Without Split

Commencing reps: 8 single complete movements. 
Progress to 10 single complete reps, then 12, after which add 5 lbs and revert to 8 reps.

4th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 9 - Stiff-Legged Dead Lift From Box

Commencing reps and progression as in previous exercise.

5th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 4 - Combination Movement

Commence with 10 reps and add 1/2 or 1 lb discs to the bar periodically.

N.B. The "starred" figures show how and when progression is effected. And similarly onwards.


SCHEDULE 2

1st Exercise - Assistance Exercise 5 - Snatch Without Split

Commencing reps: 4-4-4-4. 
Progress as Assistance Exercise 7, Schedule 1.

2nd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 3 - Alternate Press with Dumbbells

Commencing reps: 8 each hand.
Progress to 10 reps, then 12, after which revert to 8 reps and add 2.5 lbs to each bell.
N.B. The reps can be performed in groups of 4s (or 5s) if desired.

3rd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 10 - Clean and Jerk Without Split

Commencing reps: 4 reps using maximum Press poundage
3 reps with 10 lbs added to bar
2 reps with 10 lbs added to bar
1 reps with final 10 lbs added to bar

Progression: Same poundages - 
4-4*2-1
4-4-3*1
4-4-3-2*
Then revert to 4-3-2-1 and add 2.5 lbs throughout.

4th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 6 - Snatching from Two Supports

Commence with 8 single repetitions.
Progress to 10, then 12
After which, revert to 8 reps, adding 2.5 lbs.

5th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 9 - Stiff-Legged Dead Lift From Box

Commence with 8 single repetitions, as in previous exercise, and progress similarly.

6th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 1 - Seated Press
Commencing reps: 4-4-4-4
Progress as in Assistance Exercise 7 in Schedule 1.


SCHEDULE 3

1st Exercise - Assistance Exercise 3 - Alternate Press with Dumbbells

Perform 3 sets of 6 reps (3 each hand) and progress as follows:
8*6-6
6-8*6
8-8*6
6-6-8*
6-8*8
8*8-8
Then revert to 6-6-6 and add 2.5 lbs to each bell. 

2nd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 5 - Snatch Without Split

Commencing reps: 3-3-3-3
Progress as follows:
4*3-3-3
4-4*3-3
3-3-4*3
3-3-4-4*
3-4*4-4
4*4-4-4
5*4-4-4
5-5*4-4
4-4-5*4
4-4-5-5*
4-5*5-5
5*5-5-5
Then revert to 3-3-3-3 and add 5 lbs to the bar.

3rd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 9 - Stiff-Legged Dead Lift from Box

Commence with 8 single complete movements. 
Progress to 10 reps, then 12
After which, revert to 8 and add 5 lbs.

4th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 10 - Clean and Jerk Without Split

Commencing reps: 
4 sets of 3 Cleans and 1 Jerk.
Use 1-lb discs periodically for progression. 

5th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 1 - Seated Press

Commencing reps:
3-3-3-3
Progress as follows:
4*3-3-3
4-4*3-3
4-4-4*3
4-4-4-4*
Then revert to 3-3-3-3 and add 2.5 lbs to the bar.


SCHEDULE 4

1st Exercise - Assistance Exercise 1 - Seated Press

Commencing reps:
4-4-4-4

2nd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 6 - Snatch Without Split

Perform 10 single movements.

3rd Exercise - Assistance Exercise 10 - Clean and Jerk Without Split

Perform 4-3-2-1 with "assessed" poundages given in Schedule 2 for this exercise.

4th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 9 - Stiff-Legged Deadlift from Block

Perform 10 repetitions using moderately heavy weight.

5th Exercise - Assistance Exercise 3 - Alternate Press with Dumbbells

Perform 2 sets of 8 reps (4 each hand).

N.B. It will be observed that no system of progression is given for the above plan. Reason: As this schedule is intended for the man desiring a break or change from his usual routine, it is most probable that training on it will not be prolonged enough to call for this. Should, however, he consider that his condition warrants remaining on it longer than anticipated, he can do no better than employ the "miniature disc" system of progression throughout. 

 






    

  



         

        

   












       



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