Thursday, June 21, 2018

Arnold Schwarzenegger - Basic Mass Training (Gene Mozee)

While almost all newcomers to bodybuilding are faced with the problem of gaining weight and adding muscle size, the majority are able to make satisfactory progress without needing special help. There are, however, a number of slower gainers who find it more difficult to put on a basic foundation of muscle mass.

There are many factors that cause this, and eating habits are at the top of the list. You must supply your body with high-quality foods in sufficient amounts, protein foods for tissue building, as well as energy supplying carbohydrates and fats. Your goal should be to eat a well balanced diet that is both high in protein and high in good calories. Think of increasing your food intake much as you would your training poundages. Gradually increase your intake over time, making sure you never stuff yourself or force-feed to the point of simply wasting food. The human body is only capable of using the quantity of food that it adapts to, which can be increased slowly over time, again, much like it adapts to the amount of work it can recuperate from. Think "adaptation" and not sudden gross exaggeration.

Another factor that frequently interferes with progress is overworking -- too many exercises, too many sets and reps, too many days a week. All too often we try to follow the pre-contest routines of champion bodybuilders and hope to garner the same results. Just as you can't expect a passenger car to keep up with a top fuel dragster, there's just no way a bodybuilder without sufficient experience and a good foundation of muscle mass can keep up with an elite lifter. Excessively long, energy draining workouts in which you train to the point of complete exhaustion won't give you what you're after.

Too much energy expenditure outside of your lifting can also keep you from gaining much, if any muscle mass. Make sure you get plenty of rest and sleep on a regular basis while you are working to build basic muscle mass.

Never underestimate the importance of mental attitude. Mental strain can be a real energy drain on your body, which can adversely affect your workouts and your muscle growth. Always try to maintain a positive attitude toward yourself, keep calm, and stay relaxed around meal times. Just because those around you choose to throw themselves into a self-created living hell of negativity is no reason for you to join them down in the limbo of Dante's First Circle, going nowhere, gritting teeth all day and forgetting, no, refusing to even acknowledge their own power of choice. Let 'em fret and fume. You'll be glad you did once you've been alive long enough to realize that crap doesn't add up to anything in the long run. You may have to change your circle of friends as you become more open to the wonders of life, may even be left on your own at times without a social circle. What circle of Hell is that one, anyhow? Never let the childish fear of being alone determine what you do with your few years here on Earth. Or do. It's all up to you.

Learn to slow down, physically as well as mentally (except when needed). If you have trouble sleeping, check to see that you're in control of your mind. When it comes time to stop thinking and sleep, simply say "Don't Think" to yourself, give yourself the gift of mental silence, and drift off quickly into the land of refreshment and rest.

Now, on to the training methods we'll be using to gain weight and build a basic foundation of muscle mass. The most effective way to do this is to work your MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS with the exercises that involve as many large muscles as possible yet still have you going through various full ranges of motion. Heavy weights on the big movements will bring you results at this point that isolation exercises simply cannot. I gained most of my beginning muscle mass on a program of 10 exercises that I performed three times a week, moving the poundages up as I could over time. After I built a satisfactory foundation of basic muscle I switched to more complex split routines and used many different exercises for each bodypart. Don't get ahead of yourself.

If you still need to put on 20 or more pounds of basic muscle mass, the following programs are for you, whether you've been lifting for one year or ten. The basics are what you need to add basic muscle mass. Is that really so hard to understand? 

These 10 movements are the ones that that helped me the most in my quest for a bigger physical foundation. Although they may already be familiar to you, please read the exercise descriptions for each, just to be certain you're performing them correctly for this purpose. Use these routines on three non-consecutive days, Monday/Wednesday/Friday for example. 

I prefer to add weight on the 2nd and 3rd sets and then stay at my Set 3 weight for the remaining sets. For example, if I can use 135 for 6 reps on the barbell curl, then my progression is as follows: ]

115 x 8
125 x 6
135 x 6
135 x 6
135 x 6.

Here are the exercises: 

1) Squat. 

This not only develops the thighs but it also strengthens the heart and lungs and improves general circulation. You will need to do your squats with the aid of racks so that you can use heavier poundages. Don't even think about wasting your time squatting if you don't have racks or boxes. With the bar across your shoulders on the shelf formed by your traps just below the base of your neck, lower yourself to a full-squat position while keeping your upper body straight and your back flat. Inhale deeply before going down, then exhale forcefully as you return to the starting position. Use the weight progression method shown above, dropping from 8 to 6 reps as you increase the poundage for your third set. You may not get all 6 reps on your last two sets. It's perfectly normal with a challenging weight for the last three sets to be, for example, 6, 5, 3or 4. Don't bloody worry! Just keep working at it until you do get 6 reps in all of the last 3 sets, then add weight to the bar next time and keep going.   

2) Bench Press.

This is my favorite exercise for adding basic muscle mass to my upper body, especially my pectorals. Squats induce heavy breathing when worked hard, so you get additions growth promoting benefits when you follow them with chest work. Use a fairly wide grip, don't arch your back much, lower the bar to just above your nipples, and then ram it back to the top. Inhale deeply before lowering the bar and exhale forcefully on the way up. Do five sets using the same add-weight method above.

3) Incline Press.

You won't find a better exercise for thickening your upper pecs and front delts. You can use either dumbbells or a barbell. Start with the bar at arm's length above your face. Lower it to your upper chest just below your neck, then press the bar forcefully to a position over your eyes at arm's length. Again use the same weight-add progression.

 4) Wide Grip Chin.

This is a great exercise for widening and shaping your upper back. Take a wide grip on a chinning bar and exhale as you pull yourself up until your chin is over the bar. Inhale as you lower yourself under control to a full stretch. Do 5 sets of 8-10 reps. If you can get more than 10 reps strap weight around your hips.

5) Bentover Barbell Row.

Grasp a barbell with a grip that's slightly wider than shoulder width and bend forward so that your upper body is parallel to the floor. Keep your back flat so that your lats do the work. Pull the weight up to your lower chest while exhaling and lower under control while inhaling. Use the add-weight system for 5 sets. 

6) Seated Press Behind Neck.

Take a medium-wide grip on a barbell that is behind your neck resting on your shoulders. Press the weight forcefully overhead while exhaling, then lower it under control to the starting position while inhaling. Perform 5 sets with the add-weight system above.

7) Barbell Curl.

Use a medium grip for direct biceps action, although you may wish to vary your grip to whatever feels comfortable for you. Stand with your arms hanging straight down and the bar resting at your upper thighs. Take a breath and exhale as you curl the bar all the way up to full flexion without swinging. Contract your biceps hard at the top and then lower the bar as you inhale. Use the add-weight system for five sets.

8) Lying Triceps Extension.

Lie on your back on a flat bench with a close grip (10 inches between the thumbs) on a bar at arm's above your chest. As you inhale lower the bar down and back, bending your elbows until the bar is behind the top of your head and below the level of your head. Ram the weight back to the starting position. Try not to let your elbows stray outward during this movement. Use the add-weight system for five sets.

9) Heavy Deadlifts.

Far too many bodybuilders neglect this great exercise. Start gradually with this one and do only three sets for the first two weeks. Once your back has become accustomed to the movement, add two sets and do 5 sets of 3-5 reps as you increase the weight on each set. Use and over-and-under grip on the bar, and alternate hand positions with each set. You know . . . right over/left under for set one; left over/right under for set two, etc.

 10) Calf Raises.

Go through the full range of motion for 5 sets of 10-15 reps.

The above program can build tremendous size and power over time, but it can prove too rugged for some beginning lifters. Here's a decent novice introductory routine:

Bent-Knee Situp: 1 x 15-20
Squat: 3 x 10
Bench Press: 3 x 8-10
Bentover Row: 3 x 8-10
Overhead Press: 3 x 8-10
Barbell Curl: 3 x 8-10
Deadlift: 2 x 10
Calf Raise: 3 x 15-20
Bent-Leg Raises: 1 x 15-25

During the first week of training do only one set of each exercise and rest to 2-3 minutes between exercises. Do two sets for the second week and increase to three sets for the third week. If the reps are easy when you hit the top number in the listed range, add weight to the bar, 5-10 pounds is sufficient. Increase your poundages whenever possible but use correct form at all times without intense straining. Beginners can make continuous progress on this program for a good three months.

Note: If you already have several years experience and you're stuck in a rut, parked on a plateau or having trouble coming up with another bland phrase that sounds poesy-like, basic beginner routines can often help you get past that point. Sometimes decreasing the complexity of your routine does the trick. Or not. You'll figure it out, and have an even more lasting, fulfilling takeaway from it all if you do this thing as much as possible on your own, using what you can from articles like this and other sources as well. Just don't throw up your hands in frustration and flail about earthbound like some silly clipped-wing bird who sees the neighbor's cat coming nearer. Think for yourself, be the canary in that coalmine and fight to understand the personal trials and tribulations that, as always, lie in wait for you. But not you, of course, 'cause you're just so damned special and different. Right?

If you are a bodybuilder with limited time to train, works long hours, has a large army of small children etc., try the following mass routine:

Squat: 5 x 8-10
Bench Press: 5 x 6-8
Wide Grip Chin or Pulldown: 5 x 8-10
Press Behind Neck: 5 x 6-8
Barbell Curl: 5 x 6-8
Lying Triceps Extension: 5 x 6-8
Deadlift: 5 x 3-5.

Go Get Em, Tiger.
Before the party's over.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

From 'Ideal Manhood' to 'Muscle for Muscle's Sake'

 Chapter 3: From 'Ideal Manhood' to 'Muscle for Muscle's Sake'
Shift of Paradigm in the Middle Period (1940s - 1970s)

This chapter explores developments in organized bodybuilding culture in what I term the middle period, from the 1940s to the 1970s. This is a period marked, first, by the emergence for the first time of national and international structures and governing bodies for bodybuilding competition: these were either purpose-built organizations - i.e., created precisely in order to govern competition bodybuilding such as the International Federation of Bodybuilders (IFBB) in the US, and the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) in the UK - or already existing sports bodies that undertook the governance of bodybuilding contests, such as the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) in the USA; and second, by escalating competition and the development of different factions and interest within organized bodybuilding culture. 

Although comparative references are made in the European context, the focus shifts onto the USA as it becomes during the course of these decades the focal point of bodybuilding culture with an increasingly global influence.

Debates about the 'proper' meaning of bodybuilding, typically inscribed in the various systems of aesthetic criteria and rules of competition, often involved in indirect or direct ways claims over institutional power in an expanding field of social and economic activity. In an attempt to illustrate the antagonisms characteristic of this time and the progressive consolidation of a shift in the dominant model of organized bodybuilding culture, I focus on two prominent contests and the organizations that promoted them: The Mr. America, sanctioned by the AAU, and the Mr. Olympia, sanctioned by the IFBB. 

As I will demonstrate, these pivotal events functioned as flagships for the respective governing bodies, reflecting and (re-) producing the antagonistic models of physical culture and bodybuilding put forth by each. In researching them, I have greatly relied on the publications that were closely associated with them or represented similar viewpoints (Strength & Health and Iron Man magazines for the former, Muscle Builder magazine for the latter), and which I have used as sources of both factual information and dominant discourses that I attempt to analyze.

The Mr. America Contest: In Search of Ideal Manhood

The Mr. America has been one of the most widely recognizable and longstanding bodybuilding contests worldwide. [Evidence of the contest's prestige were the attempts of competing organizations to appropriate some of it by producing their own Mr. America contests. Unless otherwise specified, the Mr. America I discuss is the original one, sanctioned by and closely tied in all respects to the AAU.] 

Like the popular Miss America in search of the perfect specimen of womanhood, the Mr. America contest's objective was to showcase an 'ideal representation of American manhood' in every respect: physically, morally, and mentally. As phrased in the following editorial of Iron Man magazine, a leading publication of its time, "WE ARE ALL AGREED THAT WE MUST EITHER HAVE A MR. AMERICA WHO WILL BE AN IDEAL AMERICAN IN EVERY WAY or change the name to something like 'Best Built Man' or some other less inclusive title" (Iron Man, September 1954: 42, emphasis in original). The overt emphasis placed on the grand ideological framework of the nation's youth, health, strength and moral uprightness is situated in a post-World War II climate where physical preparedness becomes a central concern and index of patriotism.

The criteria for evaluating the 'good' body seem, in certain ways, in line with the early holistic model explored in Chapter Two. [Building 'Perfect' Bodies: The Restorative Model of the Early Period 1880s - 1930s]. In his discussion of the second, 1940, Mr. America contest held at Madison Square Garden, John Fair (Come On! You should know this author by now.) points out that "more emphasis was placed on muscular development, as signified in points and in the separate recognition of a most muscular man, but symmetry, posing and general appearance were nearly as important as in Macfadden's early Physical Culture shows". Muscular development, an aesthetic attribute, was still considered a derivative of more fundamental qualities, such as strength and health. Given the framing of the contest as in search of the ideal representative of American manhood, a series of new criteria were added. Thus, the decision was made by the governing body in 1955 to "gradually adopt such criteria as character, education, career aspirations, and athletic ability in a 'rather informal way' through an interview process." Significantly, athletic ability was introduced in 1956 as a formal criterion for the overall title. In the seminal article "Judging a Physique Contest," Bob Hoffman, head of the AAU committee for weightlifting and bodybuilding, stipulated: 

In selecting Mr. America, or any other Mr. Titlist, there should be an endeavor to select the best all-around man, a man who will be a credit to the title he bears, not just the most muscular, as too often has been done in some quarters. In selecting the title winner, whether Mr. America, Mr. Pennsylvania, Mr. New York City, or whatever the title being contested is called, the following system of scoring is employed: 

5 points for Symmetry of Proportions
5 points for Muscular Development
5 points for General Appearance, Skin, Hair, Posture, etc.
5 points for Athletic Ability.
 (Strength & Health, May 1957: 60)

In the detailed explication of each of the criteria of this judging system the link was consistently made to the overall ideal bodybuilding champions were expected to meet, that is a development of the whole person. With respect to athletic ability, the following case is made: 



Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Bob Bednarski One Lift a Day Training Week

Bob Bednarski

Bednarski, in just the last year, has come across a training system that suits him perfectly. Others, too, have tried this formula with various degrees of success. He does just one lift per day, concentrating solely on that lift until he's satisfied and then quits for the day.

Here's a sample week out of December: 

Presses, working up to 5 sets of 3 with a moderate poundage - 350 to 380.

Snatches, up to 5 sets of 3 with 305.

Squats, up to 3 reps with 450-500.

Clean and Jerk up to 3-5 singles with 405-425.


Total or work heavy on two lifts.

Squats, up to 3 reps with 450-500.    

Bob Gajda - Shoulder Specialization by Bill Starr


People are always impressed by wide shoulders on a man. Broad shoulders are almost synonymous with tall, dark and handsome. Relatively few men take the time to exercise their way to broad shoulders. They do as so many women, and rely on some sort of padding. This is surprising as naturally broad shoulders are not a common endowment. However, there is hope for those born with a narrow shoulder width, including this author, through hard work and as application of proper programming with consideration of anatomical structural weaknesses.

Anatomy and Kinesiology Applied

There are numerous muscles that are a part of the shoulder girdle but presently I will limit the discourse to deltoid function. When programming for deltoid exercises the trainee should consider three separate areas, which are:

1) Anterior Deltoid (front delt)
Action - flexion, horizontal flexion, adduction, inward rotation, mainly raising the arm forward.

2) Middle Deltoid (lateral/side delt)
Action - abduction, horizontal extension mainly raising the arm sideways.

3) Posterior Deltoid (rear delt)
Action - horizontal extension, abduction, outward rotation, adduction, mainly moving the arm backwards.


The bodybuilder should be award that the deltoid complex serves many functions; pulling. pushing, stabilizing. The function of this muscle changes depending on the angle of the arm. It is because of this that I have used a great variation of movements in my workouts, and recommend that others do so also. Sticking to the same exercise has never done a complete job for me. I've known many trainers who will do nothing but press behind the neck or military presses, whereas I do everything that my imagination can devise. This practice has helped me greatly. Try it. There do exist valuable pieces of apparatus -- like expanders, pulleys, crushers, and many more that will benefit the trainee. They also should be incorporated into a program because they afford different angles of stress that cannot be accomplished with barbells and dumbbells.


In every sequence [search this blog for more on PHA, sequence training] I always do one deltoid movement because this is a prominent weak point of mine. I work the deltoids every single day but with great variation. Always consider that the deltoids move the arm in three different ways; front, side and back. Weightlifting movements are great for the shoulders and would by any standard by a great asset if incorporated into a regular schedule. I will elaborate on weightlifting for the bodybuilder in a later article


and mention it now only because it is worthwhile. I usually work heavy pressing and pulling movements on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and lighter laterals with pulleys and expanders on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

My Favorite Shoulder Exercises

Exercise No. 1: 3-Way Combination.
In this exercise I do three movements as one set. Seated, I do 10 reps of side laterals, keeping the knuckles up and arms straight. I immediately stand and lean forward and do 10 reps of bentover laterals. Be sure to keep arms straight, knuckles up, and hold at the top of the movement for an instant. Again without hesitation, turn the palms to face behind and do 10 reps of reverse kickbacks. The think to remember in this exercise is to return only to the knees and do not swing the weight When working laterals always lower the weight slowly and raise fast. At the completion of one set I will do four or five other bodyparts to alleviate congestion. This exercise can be really great for separation and definition.

Exercise No. 2: Seated Dumbbell Press
The use of heavy weights is the secret of this exercise. I usually start out with 55's and work up to 105 pound bells. I like 10 repetitions in all shoulder movements. Try to keep the back straight, and the feet braced. If you arch the back the pectorals will come into play more, thus cutting the benefit to the deltoids. This exercise is good for size building of the frontal and middle deltoids.

Exercise No. 3: Incline Side Laterals
Check photo for correct performance. Lower slowly. Perfect for working the middle (side) delts.

Exercise No. 4: Pulley Side Laterals.
Work on getting a good lateral delt contraction and lower slowly.

Exercise No. 5: Seated Press Behind Neck
This exercise is done on special racks at the Duncan YMCA. The hands are spaced as wide as comfortably possible.

Exercise No. 6: Expander Front Pull
This exercise is great for the rear delts.

Exercise No. 7: Press Behind Neck With Cambered Bar
I vary this form of press with exercise number 5 for variety. The cambered bar gives a terrific stretch, even though less weight is handled.

Final Comments

Every bodybuilder must decide which exercises will work best for him. No two men are built the same. Following a Steve Reeves' routine won't give you the same build. You have to use common sense. I've suggested many exercises, but don't try them all at once. You've got to determine your energy level and time allotment and program around that. I would suggest that the novice pick out one movement for each section of the deltoids and work up in sets and reps.

Again, I want to say that I sequence all my exercises and use anywhere from five to ten sets of ten reps each. Please don't do exactly as I do. Work out your own scheme to fit yourself.  



Monday, June 18, 2018

Unnatural Exercises - John Grimek (1956)


Photos From a Time When Lifters Had Fun Occasionally.

Unnatural exercises. What are unnatural exercises? Is there such a thing? 

I'm well aware the above statement will shock many readers when they first see it, but let me explain that any exercise that feels awkward or strains the muscles or joints (and there are many that do just that) can be considered unnatural!

Barbell men think all barbell exercises are natural, and any signs of strain are often mistaken as "working the muscles hard" and are acceptable, instead of being associated with eventual injury. But check yourself and answer truthfully, when was the last time you recall nursing a sore shoulder, painful elbow, an aching back or bad knees? Chances are, somewhere along the line you have suffered some slight pain reaction. Nothing serious perhaps, so you let the matter slip by because you've come to accept a "few sore spots" now and the, especially if you train hard with heavier weights or perform extra reps in an intense style. 

However, there may be a morning when you wake up to find stiffness or pain in certain parts of your body. Naturally you'll rub it to stimulate circulation in the region, thinking a numbness developed while you slept in an awkward position and, feel quite certain the pain will leave after you move about. Instead, the pain intensifies as you move the limb. You try desperately to recall if anything you did in your last workout caused these annoying symptoms. Nothing you recall has any direct bearing on the incident, nor explains the reason for the pain. Once more you console yourself that all will be well as the day progresses

You may be right to some extent. Your duties occupy you and you forget the painful incident. As your working day draws to a close, your thoughts stray to training. You move the limb a few times to check any improvement, and while it feels better some pain still remains. You conclude that a good workout will fix it up and, at the appointed hour, you go to the gym and ready yourself for action. You feel fine and prepared for a terrific workout, but when you begin, you are sadly disappointed. With your very first movement the limb shoots out a painful warning in rebellion. It hurst! Man, ya gotta love the occasional spelling error, especially when trying to throw additional stress on a statement. Always good for a small laugh. You find it is difficult, downright impossible, to handle your regular training weights because of the aching limb that throbs with every movement. Somehow it doesn't figure. On your last training day, before this painful condition occurred you felt fit and unusually strong. You took a hard workout and felt like a million Dimons afterwards; no pain, not even a sore spot. Yet two days later you find yourself almost incapacitated and without a clue to the cause . . . where have you erred? 

Well I was wrong, self destruction's got me again
I was wrong, I realized now 
that I was wrong.

The injury, while not serious, may linger for days, sometimes weeks, making it increasingly difficult to train . . . so you rest a good bit. Certainly you've had sore shoulders before, but a couple days of rest usually made it well enough for you to continue training lightly. That's just it . . . if you train it must be very light, and such training may prove conducive to a quick recovery. However, if any degree of pain is associated with any of the movements, don't force it, thinking you can work it out. You won't, but might succeed in aggravating it. Forcing the muscle to work against resistance that promotes pain will only delay the healing processes, but light exercises to stimulate blood circulation into the inflamed region will help. Applying heat will also allay the stinging sensation, and a good rubbing compound could be applied which can help to retain warmth and circulation for longer periods.

But all this doesn't explain how the condition happened or what caused the pain to start, nor what could be done to prevent it from happening again.

Up until recently little attention was paid to the matter, since numerous letters are always received for advice pertaining to various types of physical injuries, but of late an increasing number seem to center around elbows, a condition rarely mentioned in previous years. Now, however, it's not unusual to find several such complaints in the mail everyday . . . why?

This article was prompted by just such a letter which was received from a young man who visited us some months back and trained here. It was while training one afternoon that everyone turned to see where the grinding noise came from and saw our visitor indulging in an unusual exercise that looked more like he was trying to tear his shoulders and elbows instead of developing muscle. Someone asked him if that didn't bother his elbows.

"Not much," was his reply, "although they get mighty sore sometimes." It was logical to assume that a painful reaction might result eventually if he persisted with this exercise. His letter verified our beliefs which added, he was forced to quit training because his entire arm had developed a painful soreness that wouldn't permit the slightest movement in comfort.

Here was a fellow who very obviously ignored nature's rebellion against the exercise he thought he should do, in spite of the grinding noises that issued from his joints while he performed this movement. Cracking sounds from shoulders or knees are quite common and no cause for alarm; they indicate there is a lack of synovial fluid within the joint to properly lubricate it, but exercise will eventually stimulate a better flow and thus eliminate the audible creak. But the sounds our visitor emitted indicated very definitely that the joints were being strained, not trained. 

Even ordinary back exercises could prove a menace to those who have weak backs and decide to strengthen them quickly. There's no such thing as "quick" where muscles are concerned as those who seek such shortcuts find out.

Stiff-legged deadlifts can be a wonderful corrective exercise if employed properly, but they can also be the prime contributing factor to a sore back! Whenever back exercises are employed utmost care should be taken to warm up this region thoroughly with numerous repetitions and light resistance. Once the back is warmed up, it can stand amazing strain and show remarkable flexibility, even among those who are naturally stiff and weak. Some of the outstanding twisting movement we've featured within these pages can boomerang on those who sit around in drafts and chill their backs and then plunge directly into vigorous exercise. This is dangerous and encourages strained and pulled muscles in this vital region, resulting in an aching back that can plague you for months.

Many bad knees stem from exercises that place an unnatural strain on them, mainly because of the position the legs are forced into. The Hack Lift has contributed to such complaints because very often the feet are not naturally spaced, I've always felt that if the limbs were used more naturally, complaints would be fewer.

Some years ago a chiropractor came up with a zig-zagged curved bar to ease the strain during curls, and while this was an excellent idea, dumbbell could be employed with equal success. Hint, hint. Dumbbells allow for more freedom of movement. Nevertheless, this odd bar was the first step taken in the right direction to eliminate unnatural strains from curling weights.

Another condition, less painful but more detracting, are stretch marks. Unheard of years ago except among the very fat, today stretch marks are found to be quite common. Note: There's a great little Kelso article, The Stretch Mark Machine, that I should put up sometime for people who haven't had the pleasure of reading it yet. The flying exercises recommended to build massive pectorals may do just that in some cases, but many develop skin tears instead, which eventually heal and show up as silvery streaks. Exercises that bring about such marks should be avoided or employed more carefully, but more important is to see that skin is supplied with all the elements that keep it healthy, soft and fully elastic.

Using excessively heavy weights at all times is not necessary in all exercises to build muscle, but very often results in sprains, strains and skin tears. Figure it out . . .

Why are such problems more prevalent today than they were years ago? There is a very good reason. On comparing notes recently our conclusions centered around some of the newly invented exercises which are widely practiced today, and are supposed to develop muscles bigger and faster. Too many cheating curls, for example, for those who aren't prepared to employ such poundages can pull the biceps attachments enough to make them painful for days, sometimes weeks. The idea of handling heavy weights appeals to the majority, capable or not, and because this movement brings into action stronger and larger muscles the strain always falls upon the weakest link, which may be the elbow, biceps or shoulder. It may seem odd to a novice that the shoulder can be pulled while curling, but have you tried curling weights when your shoulders were injured? Just consult your anatomy chart and convince yourself this is possible. It has happened many times.

Another exercise that could be labeled unnatural for many trainees is the French Press. This exercise works the triceps in an unnatural manner, therefore it often strains elbows, especially when overdone by using excessive poundages. The greatest strain results when the weight is heaved from behind the head, instead of bringing it up with a steady, gradual pull. Those who employ this exercise in its various forms should be careful to warm up first by using a lighter weight and repeating the first set numerous times. Such precautions will help to minimize the elbow soreness to some extent. Always bear this in mind when doing any exercises: first warm up the muscles thoroughly before attempting any heavy poundages. Much grief might be spared.

Numerous exercises have been hailed as new ideas for muscle developing in recent times, but most of them aren't any newer than the standard curl which has been know and used ever since exercise in any form has been employed. Many of the exercises accepted now were tried and rejected long ago because they felt awkward or unnatural.

Feeling unnatural doesn't always decrease the developing potential of the exercise, however, since many of us are constructed slightly different anatomically so that some of these exercises can be done more naturally by some while others find it impossible, which proves  

As I write this an incident comes to mind. One of our fellows become obsessed with the lying down curl done with an overhead pulley. He found it cramped his biceps faster, but always experienced a stinging sensation after. After finishing his training one day on which he included more of these lying down curls than usual, he joined some of us who were having fun lifting one end of a car. He lifted the car with ease, but while he was holding his end up with ridiculous ease, it happened! The biceps tendon snapped! This wasn't because his biceps were weaker than any of the others, but they were weary and played out from those cramping curls and snapped from pure exhaustion. It's possible, had he not exhausted his biceps with those unnatural curls, he could have lifter the car with all of us sitting in it without tearing the tendon. But unnatural exercises have a tendency to fatigue muscles faster because of the strained or cramped position the muscles are forced into. BE CAREFUL IN YOUR USE OF THESE TYPES OF EXERCISES.

From the foregoing readers are apt to assume I'm out to condemn their favorite exercises. On the contrary, I think most bodybuilders can reason things logically for themselves and realize when an exercise is doing them harm or bringing results. I would like to reiterate, however, that such exercises which feel awkward or unnatural should be done first with a very light weight and repeated many times with this light weight to warm up the tissue thoroughly. A muscle so stimulated absorbs the shock and strain better and offsets possible injury.

The most common danger lies when one attempts to show off for his friends or for the sake of his own ego when alone how much he can do without warming up. It's when the muscles are "cold" and not fully activated that they are so susceptible to injuries.

It also happens when the muscles have been overworked and fatigued, when the tissue is clogged with carbon dioxide, lactic acids and other body chemicals that are produced whenever a muscle is active or exercised. Any sudden exertion in an unnatural position could result in pulling or tearing a muscle.

By experience you will learn when any movement feels unnatural to you, and knowing this, the best thing you can do is discard it. If you eliminate the exercise, you can find at least a dozen to replace it, and perhaps several will prove much more effective. For example, there are many movements that work the triceps just as thoroughly as the French Press and with less strain on the joints.

The old adage, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure is truer in exercise than any other field, and those who have suffered painful muscle soreness and even injury will realize the true meaning. So, don't try to show off without first warming up thoroughly. Don't train in cold or drafty locations without ample covering.

Take care of your muscles and they will take care of you. 


Saturday, June 16, 2018

Bob Gajda P.H.A. Interview - Peary Rader

Courtesy of Terry Strand.
All the Best to Ya!

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Peary Rader (PR): Bob, I understand that you pioneered this new system of exercise we have called the Sequence System, and I would like to ask a few questions to help Iron Man readers adapt it to their own training. Why did you research this system in the first place? 

Bob Gajda (BG): Well, Peary, I sort of fell into it, you might say, while attending George Williams College and associating a lot with Dr. Steinhaus. We had discussed the aspects of the various systems, their values and their faults.

While attending an exhibition of the Danish Gymnastic team, I participated in their class of gymnastics with students of the Neilsborg school. I found, while participating in these exercises, that although they were very strenuous and grueling in a lot of respects, I felt stimulated, almost as if it were a tonic. I was very surprised and discussed this with Dr. Steinhaus after the class, and he explained the theory of "Peripheral Heart Action." This is the first time I had heard of this phrase of Peripheral Heart Action, of PHA. Sequence training is a term that someone invented who first wrote up my system; I believe it was Norman Zale who wrote me up in last December's issue of Iron Man. 


Now, before I explain about the PHA system I'd like to tell you what happens when an excessive pump system of training so popular now is used as a means of muscle building. One reason I never favored the pump system was that as soon as I would take a layoff the development would disappear just as fast as it was developed originally, and this has been the experience of others who used this system. In discussing this system with Dr. Steinhaus, he explained some of the chronic effects of this extreme pumping system and the flushing or whatever your wish to call it. 

One thing he felt was very bad was the extreme ischemia condition that it causes. This is what the bodybuilders strive for -- this ischemia. When working in this manner congest the blood in the muscle, getting all into it that it can hold and then trying to force more into it by additional reps and exercises. The muscle begins to ache because of a lack of oxygen (you build up an extreme oxygen debt). This is evidenced by muscle cramp and ache. There is an extreme dilation of the capillaries and veins as the blood backs up and is congested in the muscles. You will often see little red corpuscle breakdowns and the development of varicose veins in the lower extremities because of this congestion of blood.

Because of these and other conditions brought on by the "pumping system" we find many bodybuilders who use the split workout system have very slow recuperation. They often require two to four days rest for the muscles being worked. Because of the congestion and toxic effect of the pump system, their recuperation is difficult and necessarily slow. They also make other mistakes in the pump system, such as rests between sets and exercises. These rests are necessary because of the nature of their training system and the rest periods contribute to the problem, because during the rest period the circulation slows down.

Now, I'd like to tell you about the PHA or sequence system of training and why it is superior. As you know, we have but one heart which is nothing more or less than a muscular pump for moving the blood. However, it can't do the whole job and must have help. It gets help from a lot of other pumps, about 696 of them-- the muscles of the body. Whenever a muscle contracts it acts as a pump to move the veinal blood full of oxidative wastes out of the muscle and back toward the heart so that new blood with new nourishment can enter the muscle. This is the arterial blood.

In order to work or function, a muscle must have a regular supply of oxygen to break down the glycogen (sugar) for energy. Thus we can see that the kneading action of the contracting muscle moves the veinal blood out and bring in new blood with nourishment. the veins which are thin walled are squeezed by the contracting muscle which forces the movement of the blood from and to the heart. This is especially important in the lower extremities of the legs and feet where the blood must be moved against gravity and the veins have little valves which prevent the blood from moving backward when the muscle contracts -- it can only move forward. Thus we have the muscles working to assist the heart in this continuous circulation.

With the PHA system the main emphasis is on continuous circulation. If we keep the circulation constant in a muscle it will grow. We must not congest the blood in a muscle but keep it moving in and out of the muscle all the time. This is the aim of the PHA or sequence system. 

Here is another reason for this continuous movement of the blood. There is a unique system of buffers contained in the blood. These buffers are substances contained in the blood which neutralize the acids so the pH of the blood is not altered greatly. The pH of the blood is a state of dynamic equilibrium or chemical balance needed for life. A normal pH is 75 and anything much above or below this would offset the chemical balance of the body and if the change became very great would cause death. During our exercise we build up acids in the blood which these buffers neutralize. If we fail to neutralize these acids we become fatigued and tired.

Each muscle contains some buffers but not enough to replenish its own loss or to do a complete job under great stress of training. Therefore we must have a constant flow of blood through the muscles to bring new buffering action and to assist the muscles with buffers contained within them. If and when the buffers are used up we develop lactates or acids and eventually we are fatigued and the muscle can no longer function efficiently and must have a long period for recuperation. A well conditioned athlete has, through training, developed a more efficient buffering system -- in other words, he has a bigger phosphate (buffer) reserve to carry him along over a greater period of time.

These buffers are a actually hemoglobin, plasma-proteins, bicarbonates and cell-phosphates.

PR: This is a very good description of what the PHA system is all about, Bob, and I see that you feel that the "pumping" or "flushing" system as is commonly practiced today is not only less effective, but might be bad for the health.

Bob: This is right, Peary, the pumping system will build up an extreme oxygen debt and not only is the muscle congested with blood, it is congested with the wastes resulting when the blood sugar is broken down and energy is being liberated. The whole thing is rather complicated to explain in this short space, but I'm sure you can see my point. You must get these wastes out of the muscle and you must get new blood in with its nourishment and it must be kept moving toward the heart, because unless you get blood back to the heart it cannot pump it through the lungs and on its way again. This is what happens when you use the pump system. You get a congestion which is deliberate and the blood cannot move on -- then the bodybuilder rests, and again when he rests there is no circulation and he continues to compound his mistakes, and I feel that this condition, if continued over a long period of time can be bad for the health. It is possible that it might even have something to do with some sort of the heart conditions we hear about. At least it is not of benefit to the cardiovascular system. We do not appreciably accelerate the action of the heart and lungs over a long enough period of time to benefit them and actually you are committing an offense to them, I feel.

An experiment that a training friend, Roger Metz and I carried out will help illustrate some of the relative merits of the two systems. We had been using 70 pounds for 10 sets of preacher bench curls with the sequence system. This day we decided to try the regular pump system. We rested about four minutes between sets. We were surprised to find that we had to finish the sets with only 40 pounds. The congestion from the pump system would not permit good circulation to the muscle or from the muscle, and the buffering action was almost completely lacking after a set or two. Our muscles became extremely fatigued and were almost helpless.

PR: Bob, in this respect how does the PHA system differ? How does it benefit the cardiovascular system?

BG: In the sequence or the PHA system we train continuously, that is, we never stop even a moment between exercises for rest. We work faster and this speeds up the heart and lung action and this speed is kept up at a steady, continuous pace for a long period of time, up to two or three hours in my own training. In a moment I'll explain how I train in this manner in more detail, but you can see that this is the type of system of continuous and more rhythmic training recommended by Cureton and others to condition the body. In other words, it is training that is kept up without stop over a long period of time. Cureton, I believe, recommends running for at least 35 minutes continuously for best results. Whereas running is strictly an endurance exercise, my system of PHA or sequence training with weights combines muscle building with endurance and conditioning.

PR: Can you tell us a little more about the application of this PHA system, and I note that you sometimes use the word sequence -- what do you mean?

BG: A sequence is a group of exercises -- usually 5 or 6 different exercises, each one for different parts of the body. You do not exercise the same muscles twice in succession, but to to another muscle or body part. If you, for instance, performed two or more sets of curls in succession you would be doing the pump or flushing system. On the sequence system you would do a set of curls, then perhaps go to a set of calf raises or abdominal work or back work. In other words, do not exercise the same muscle two sets in succession. Do not even use what is called supersets in which you alternate between the biceps and the triceps for several sets. This will bring about a congestion of the whole arm. Go to some other body part. Then to another body part.

PR: Bob, we know that a lot of fellows train their upper body one day and the lower body another day on the theory that they should keep the circulation in one area for a long period. On your system the exercises are spread over the entire body.

BG: There is no logical reasoning behind this theory. The blood is circulating over the entire body and should do so.

For instance, if you do flushing or pumping for the arms until you build up the oxygen debt we have discussed earlier, your entire body begins to absorb these fatigue poisons in a short time. You can't stop the blood flow to one area and speed it up to another. This is one of the fallacies of the pumping or flushing system. In the PHA system there is a stimulated and uninterrupted flow of blood over the entire body because we exercise the entire body each workout.

Because we do not rest between exercises we maintain the accelerated flow of blood and the buffering action and thus we delay the onset of fatigue much longer. This permits us, if we so choose, to work out much harder and much longer and still not finish with the exhausted feeling that is so often the case. Such a program, I might say, also permits more frequent training -- as often as every day in some instances.

PR: Bob, you talk of going through a workout faster and with less fatigue. You mention not resting between exercises. Please explain your own speed.

BG: Well, Peary, most fellows take up to 2 to 5 minutes rest between sets and several minutes rest between exercises. Have you tried to figure how many exercises you can do if you do not take that rest? I can do my workout in about three hours. A friend of mine, Dr. Pohanic, came down one time and kept a record of my workout and also of the workouts of the other fellows in the gym. I used the PHA or sequence system and, according to his figures, I was able to do four times more work in a shorter period of time and still was not tired out. I took advantage of the buffering action of the blood by keeping continuous circulation and avoiding congestion. I use many more exercises with this system than would be possible with the old method.

PR: Bob, you mentioned that you did not believe in working only the upper body one day and the lower body the next. Do you follow this practice of working the whole body every workout?

BG: Yes, I work the whole body in order to take advantage of the peripheral heart action or PHA. However, I have what I call upper body emphasis and lower body emphasis. In other words, I will work my upper body very hard one day but will also work my lower body but not quite so hard. Then the next workout I may work the lower body very hard but the upper body work will be lighter, thus I always work the entire body but place emphasis on certain areas.  

PR: When training on this system, what do you recommend for repetitions?

BG: I would say this depends on the person, as we all respond differently to different schedules, and to start out I would say that 8-10 reps would be about right, then later on you may find that more or less would suit you best. Some gain best on high reps and some do better on low reps.

PR: Bob, we haven't said much about sets. Do they come into action here?

BG: As commonly used, no, but I do use sets in a different manner. Let me illustrate. I have a sequence of 6 exercises. The calf raise, the curl, the situp, the triceps press, the pulldown, and the squat. I plan to use 8 repetitions. So I do 8 reps in the calf raise (though for calves I'd usually go higher in reps), then I'd go to the curl and do 8 reps. Then to the situp for whatever number of reps I'd planned, and so on throughout the rest of the 6 exercises. This would be one set for each exercise. Then I would start all over again with the calf raise and go through the whole sequence again. This would be the second set, if you wish to call it that. When I'm training regularly I go through this sequence about 5 times. This would be five sets. I would not rest at any time, either between exercises or between sets or sequences, whichever you wish to call them. I would do this because I know that if I sit down to rest my circulation would slow up and I would then lose the buffering action. My muscles would not be active and so I would not be helping the circulation with the muscle contractions.

PR: Thank you, Bob. Now do you mean to tell me that you would only do 6 exercises?

BG: Oh no, I would do perhaps 24 or 36 exercises. In other words, in a workout I would have 4 to 6 sequences I would work on, each containing 6 exercises. Sometimes I will have only 5 exercises in a sequence, but seldom less than that. Can you imagine anyone doing 36 exercises for 5 sets in the conventional pumping system? He would be dead tired for a week. When preparing for a contest I work up to 10 sets, or in other words I do each sequence 10 times. This would constitute 360 sets if I had 36 exercises in 6 sequences. Certainly this is not for beginners, and I myself would not consider it good to remain on this heavy a program for very long. However, it does help me to shape up and get that sharp definition needed for a contest.

PR: In a recent article you talked about the dangers of holding the breath in lifting, and consequent blackout. Do you hold your breath when exercising in this manner?

BG: No, I do not. When working hard it may be necessary to catch the breath for just a moment. However, when you do this you take a deep breath and then slowly let the breath out as you exert yourself. this will prevent the problem of blackout mentioned in the other article, and is a healthful way to breathe. I think too much emphasis has been placed on breathing. I feel that you should breathe as you find the need and that special breathing techniques are unnecessary.

PR: Bob, do you feel better on this program?

BG? Definitely. You are full of pep all the time and when you to to the shower you are really feeling rather exhilarated. A lot of fellows who have tried this say, "I don't feel as tired as usual!" Actually, they have performed more work in a shorter period of time but they comment, "I don't feel like I've had a workout," because they don't have the usual exhausted feeling. Many fellows drift back into their old ways of training because of this. They are so accustomed to being worn out after a workout that they just can't realize this isn't necessary or desirable.

PR: Bob, do you consider diet of great importance and do you think this program will bulk you up as fast as the others?

BG: I think that bulk building is dependent on diet, absolutely. Exercise has very little to do with either bulking up or cutting down. Proper nutrition is absolutely essential. Of course you must have the exercise to get more muscular bulk instead of fat, but you must have good nutrition. It is supremely important and I will tell you more about this later.

PR: This interview has become quite lengthy, Bob, and so I'd like to ask if you can outline some sample programs or sequence systems that our readers may use.

BG: Yes, Peary, I'd be happy to do this. I will outline three programs, one for beginners, the second for the slightly more experienced, and the third for intermediate trainers who are more advanced. Later I will give you my own program which I consider very advanced, but this is not for fellows who have never worked this system, even though they have previously worked hard on pumping systems. I would like to caution those who are not in excellent condition to take it easy at first, starting with rather light weights and working up gradually.

Start the beginners program for a month, then go to the novice program for a month, then to the intermediate program for a month. From this you would go to the advanced program which will appear later.


Beginners Program - Three Days Per Week

10 reps per set,  2 sets (sequences).

Sequence No. 1

1) Military Press
2) Situp
3) Calf Raise
4) Barbell Curl

Sequence No. 2

1) Bench Press
2) Leg Raise
3) Rowing Motion
4) One Leg Calf Raise

Sequence No. 3

1) Deadlift
2) Upright Row
3) Frog Kicks
4) Wrist Curls 

Novice Program - Three Days Per Week

10 reps per set, 2-3 sets (sequences).

Sequence No. 1

1) Press Behind Neck
2) One Leg Calf Raise
3) Leg Raise
4) Bench Press
5) Wide Grip Chin
6) Barbell Curl

Sequence No. 2

1) Donkey Calf Raise 
2) Side Laterals
3) Situps 
4) Dips
5) Pulldown
6) Squat

Sequence No. 3

1) Leg Press Toe Raise
2) Seated Dumbbell Press
3) Twist
4) Leg Curl
5) Triceps Press
6) Deadlift

Intermediate Program - Three Days Per Week  

10 reps per set, 5 sets (sequences). 

Sequence No. 1

1) Seated Dumbbell Press
2) Peak Dumbbell Curl
3) Power Rack Toe Raise
4) High Tension Situp
5) Good Morning Exercise
6) Wrist Curl

Sequence No. 2

1) Squat
2) Pullover
3) Wide Grip Chin
4) Reverse Curl
5) One Leg Calf Raise
6) Twists

Sequence No. 3

1) One Arm DB Row
2) Lying Laterals
3) Sissy Squat
4) Close Grip Chins
5) Neck Strap
6) Seated Knee Tucks

Sequence No. 4

1) Bench Press
2) Side Laterals
3) Wrist Roller
4) Leg Curl
5) Let Extension
6) One Arm Triceps Press. 

Editor's Comments (Peary Rader) 

I have been very interested in the PHA system for some time. So much so that I use it myself almost exclusively and have put all the men in our gym on it. All of them liked it much better than the old pump system for several reasons. For one, they feel that can get a heavier workout with less exhaustion and quicker recovery from their workouts. We emphasize that two successive exercises should not work the same muscles, and try to space the exercises which do work the same muscles a little bit apart. In other words, we put other exercises between them so there is time for circulation to carry on the buffering action for a longer period and to prevent congestion of the muscle with blood.

I also emphasize that they should never sit down or rest in any manner between exercises, but to continue right through the entire sequence and then right into the next sequence. There is no rest from the time they start their workout until they have completed it. I also recommend that they taper off with a run, jog, or fast walk.

Personally, I follow the same type of program and always finish with a jog of about five minutes. Usually I must do this in the gym an sometimes even do stationary running. This helps keep the circulation active and assists in the PHA. I usually taper off from the jogging to a walk as I finish. I feel that the time spent running is more important than how fast you run. I therefore time myself rather than measure distance.  

I personally feel that this type of workout routine is made to order for the older man interested in health and condition as well as for the young fellow who wants more muscle and strength. The young fellows in the gym are now able to work harder and finish their workouts in much less time than before and all of them are making new progress.


Thursday, June 14, 2018

Tommy Kono's Training

Charles (Chuck) Vinci 
February 28, 1933 - June 13, 2018.

As told to readers in the Soviet magazine "Theory and Practice of Physical Culture"

In a letter received by Tommy Kono, V. M. Kasyanov, editor in chief of the Soviet publication "Theory and Practice of Physical Culture," asked for a detailed article covering all phases of Kono's rigorous training schedule, to be read by all Soviet athletes now training for the Olympics. He asked the following questions: 

1) At what age did you begin heavy athletics? 
2) What results did you have from your earliest competition? 
3) How did you solve the problem of all around training? 
4) How did your training program advance:
a] quantity of weights used
b] length of each training period
c] loads of weight used at each increase
d] length of each training program
e] what particular points did you pay most attention to in your training
f] sequence of exercises used
g] what aim did you set - what problem was set before you for fulfillment 
h] repetition of exercises used
i] how were mistakes corrected
j] do you practice the hot bath and massage during training periods
k] food and sleep habits during training period.  

Thanks Again, My Friend! 

Tommy Kono: 

Born to sub-normal health, I have always been keenly interested in physical culture. I suffered the first 14 years of my life with severe attacks of asthma and, therefore, it was common for me to miss one-third of my school days during those early years. At the age of 14, when I was 5 feet 1 inch tall and weighed approximately 105 pounds, two close friends introduced me to the value of progressive weight training. 

Although my primary aim in weight training was to improve my health (strength and muscular development being second in importance), I had a tendency to drift into the sport of weightlifting. But it wasn't until March of 1948 when I was almost 18 years of age when I first competed in a weightlifting contest. I managed to place second in the lightweight division in the Northern California Championships with an unimpressive 585 pound total -- 175 Press; 185 Snatch; 225 C & J. 

During my early weightlifting career I did not experience any "fantastic" improvements in the lifts in any short space of time, but I did manage to make steady gains. My total progressed from 585 pounds to 780 in two years time; showing improvements in my total in every contest that I entered.

In May, 1950, I entered my first national contest in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. I competed against Joe Pitman, defending National Champion, and Dave Sheppard, sensational New Yorker. At the completion of the match in the lightweight class only 5 pounds separated the three of us with Pitman for the first place with a 765 total. Dave Sheppard and I tied in total with 760 but because I had weighed in a half pound lighter than Sheppard I was awarded the second place position.  

My progress was stopped temporarily when I was called to military duty in early 1951. Later that year I was granted permission by the Army to compete in the National Championships. Although I only managed three workouts before the match, I again totaled 760, once more trailing Pitman. Actually, this was encouraging for it showed that I had the potential of lifting superior poundages if I had the proper opportunity to practice the sport regularly.

During the early part of my weightlifting and physical culture work my principal instructions were gathered from the teachings of Bob Hoffman, U.S. National weightlifting coach. I used his courses and many articles as the basis to conduct my experiments on myself and carefully study my findings.  

I learned long ago that individual lifters vary to a certain degree; no two persons can derive the same benefit, equally, from the same course. 

I have been fortunate in discovering the ideal course for myself. But it has been by trial and error, experiment and study that I have managed to filter out all the finer points in scientific, progressive training for the sport of weightlifting. 

Originally, I worked out two to three hours, three to four days weekly. My program consisted of many basic exercises such as the Press, Bench Press, Upright Rowing Motion, Dead Lifts, Squats, Curls, etc., performing them from 2-3 series (sets) of 8-10 repetitions with the heaviest weights I could handle. 

I "specialized" in these basic exercises because I learned early in my training life that it is through the strength developed by the basic exercises plus the coordination of the movements that one is able to elevate heavy poundages. Therefore, it is my belief that all aspiring lifters should go through preliminary training where they devote many hours to developing their all-around bodily strength before ever going into the sport of weightlifting.

At present (1956) I work out from 60 to 90 minutes, 3 to 4 times a week. I either train exclusively on the three lifts plus one or two supplementary movements or perform 5 to 6 exercises paralleling the Olympic lifts.

I consider boredom in training as one of the chief causes of stagnation in lifting. For this reason I rearrange my training methods and program about every three weeks. I fear that if I spend too much time on a single course my interest in the sport would diminish. I also time my workouts and exercises so I do not get absentminded and devote too much time to any one particular exercise. I believe time is an important factor in training so I govern my workouts by it.

Three to five weeks before an important match I go on a program exclusively built on the three lifts plus the Deep Knee Bend exercise. I attempt to schedule my training program so that I use progressively heavier and heavier weights as the contest time approaches -- the contest itself being my peak performance.

During this time I make it a point to devote as much attention to one lift as I do to another for it is the sum of three lifts that counts. In all the lifts I keep the repetitions low in number because too many reps would create muscle fatigue. I also avoid extremely heavy weights in my training for the use of too close to limit poundage would be exhausting on the nerve. The number of repetitions I found ideal for my purpose was three repetitions per set except at the beginning of my workout period when I use light weights to warm up, doing five repetitions.

I use 135 pounds to warm up for the lift I will practice, performing as many sets as I think necessary to step up blood circulation. After I am thoroughly warmed up I gradually increase the poundage on the lift. From 205 pounds I go up in poundage until I approach my maximum or near maximum poundage for three repetitions. Normally this would be on the 4th set. When I reach the desired poundage on the lift I attempt to remain with the poundage for 3-4 sets of 3 repetitions.

When I am in very good condition on the lifts I take a precautionary measure in training in increasing the poundages on each workout. I am limited to a certain extent to the amount of improvement I can make during a certain period of time so I do not try to increase the poundages per workout. Rather I try to increase the weight when I think it is feasible.      

There are many important things in training. The principle behind a rigid training program is to condition the body to work at maximum efficiency. To do so entails many hours of training to improve speed and power, balance and timing, and form and technique. Yet, I believe one of the most important factors in training and commonly overlooked detail is

THE DISCIPLINE OF THE MIND IN RELATION TO THE LIFTS. The complete mastery of the mind over the body enables the body to handle heavy, limit weights.

My training at the beginning of my lifting career has varied quite a bit owing to the constant search for a better, improved method of training. Throughout the years that I have participated in weightlifting I have always made a careful survey of my lifting needs and then attempted to correct the fault of mistake by selecting the right exercise or exercises and incorporating them in my regular training. 

It is only by constant practice with the correct style that one learns to execute the lifts perfectly. Any deviation from the right form I try to rectify by locating my mistake, analyzing and correcting it before it becomes a habit. 

When I have the opportunity to train with other lifters or have someone who knows the finer points in lifting watch, I seek their advice. My theory being that no one person knows all there is to know about the science of the sport, so I ask for criticism which I evaluate to suit my needs.

The end result in all training and studies in any field of athletics is to become the very best in the chosen sport. However, from the beginning of my lifting life my primary aim was to show continued progress in the sport. Winning or losing a contest is secondary. I would rather gamble for a new record than win a championship by performing my mediocre best. Above all I enjoy competitions. Nothing gives me greater satisfaction than to know that I tried my best and won.

When I am not in actual competition then I compete against myself, a challenge where I have to be at my very best. In other words I try to surpass all previous marks made by myself whether the previous marks happen to be world records or not.

There are many factors which help my lifting but I believe that diet and sleep are two of the main factors outside of good training and proper coaching. I have been fortunate in my training in that I was able to show improvement constantly. This has been to a great extent the result of following the right method of training for my needs; but of late, I have made faster gains in my lifts. I attribute this mainly to the correction of my nutritional deficiencies by Dr. Richard W. You of Honolulu, Olympic team physician. In the past I have made a study of the properties of food and foodstuffs and I have employed to the best of my knowledge the correct eating habits. But it wasn't until I placed myself under the capable hands of Dr. You that I really derived the full benefits from the correct nutritional standpoint.

After having all my dietary deficiencies corrected by Dr. You I have maintained a diet rich in vitamins, minerals and high protein content to continue my progress in lifting. Correct and adequate diet is important in progressive, scientific training as it has been proven to me by my rapid recuperative power during the past year. I am able to arrive at my peak condition faster and remain in top condition over a longer period of time.

Perhaps my worst drawback in lifting at the present time is my very poor sleeping habit. I sleep soundly and well but the hours of sleep are very short. I often go for weeks at a time with as little as 5 and 1/2 hours of sleep per night because of the pressure of business and other matters which takes up much of my attention. However, before an important contest I increase the hours of sleep to 8 hours per night. I believe that I could show faster improvements on my lifts if I am able to sleep and rest longer hours.

My training does not include hot baths or massage. I do believe that correct use of both the bath and massage would help relax and tone the muscles after a strenuous session with the weights but I classify both measures as luxuries that I can do without. I have never used hot bath as a part of my training and only on rare occasions when I have over-trained or cramped my muscles by undue exertions have I had massage.

In conclusion I would like to say that I enjoy lifting and lifters. I have learned the true value of progressive weight resistance as a means to improve one's physical appearance, strength, and above all the prize possession of health. I have been fortunate to be able to travel around the world, visit many countries, meet kings and dignitaries and have made many foreign friends because of the ability I have developed through the use of weights. But above all I have won my health, and that alone was worth all the time and effort that I have spent in the weight room.      

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